Thiamine Metabolism Dysfunction Syndrome 2 (biotin- Or Thiamine-responsive Type); Thmd2

Description

Thiamine metabolism dysfunction syndrome-2 is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by episodic encephalopathy, often triggered by febrile illness, presenting as confusion, seizures, external ophthalmoplegia, dysphagia, and sometimes coma and death. Administration of high doses of biotin, and sometimes thiamine, during these crises results in partial or complete improvement within days. If untreated, encephalopathies can result in permanent dystonia. Brain imaging may show characteristic bilateral lesions of the basal ganglia. It is not known why biotin administration results in clinical improvement, as the molecular basis of the disorder is mutation in a gene encoding a thiamine transporter. However, biotin may increase the gene expression of SLC19A3 (summary by Debs et al., 2010).For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of disorders due to thiamine metabolism dysfunction, see THMD1 (OMIM ).

Clinical Features

Top most frequent phenotypes and symptoms related to Thiamine Metabolism Dysfunction Syndrome 2 (biotin- Or Thiamine-responsive Type); Thmd2

  • Intellectual disability
  • Seizures
  • Global developmental delay
  • Generalized hypotonia
  • Ataxia
  • Nystagmus
  • Ptosis
  • Nevus
  • Dysarthria
  • Hyperreflexia
And another 40 symptoms. If you need more information about this disease we can help you.
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Incidence and onset information

Not enough data available about incidence and published cases.


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Thiamine Metabolism Dysfunction Syndrome 2 (biotin- Or Thiamine-responsive Type); Thmd2 Recommended genes panels

Panel Name, Specifity and genes Tested/covered
Epilepsy Advanced Sequencing and CNV Evaluation - Generalized, Absence, Focal,Febrile and Myoclonic Epilepsies.

By Athena Diagnostics Inc in United States.

ALPL, ADSL, SLC25A19, LIAS, ABAT, GAMT, GATM, SUCLA2, ALG9, GLDC, AMT, ALDH7A1, NDUFA1, L2HGDH, CYP27A1, SLC6A8, CHRNA7, PCDH19, SLC2A1, PHGDH , (...)

View the complete list with 64 more genes
Specificity
2 %
Genes
100 %
Epilepsy Advanced Sequencing and CNV Evaluation.

By Athena Diagnostics Inc in United States.

UBE3A, ALPL, ADSL, PAX6, CPT2, ATP6V0A2, HSD17B10, HPRT1, ADGRV1, SHH, POLG, SLC25A19, PANK2, MECP2, LIAS, ABAT, GAMT, GATM, STXBP1, SUCLA2 , (...)

View the complete list with 214 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Epilepsy Advanced Sequencing and CNV Evaluation-Epileptic Encephalopathy.

By Athena Diagnostics Inc in United States.

UBE3A, ADSL, SLC25A19, MECP2, LIAS, STXBP1, SLC25A22, ALG9, GLDC, AMT, SLC9A6, WWOX, ARX, CDKL5, FOXG1, PCDH19, SLC2A1, SYNGAP1, SCN1A, KCNJ11 , (...)

View the complete list with 47 more genes
Specificity
2 %
Genes
100 %
Biotin-Responsive Basal Ganglia Disease - SLC19A3 Sequencing.

By Children's Hospital Colorado Molecular Genetics Laboratory Children's Hospital Colorado in United States.

SLC19A3
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
Dystonia.

By Knight Diagnostic Laboratories - Molecular Diagnostic Center Oregon Health & Science University in United States.

PTEN, ATP7B, AUH, PSEN1, HPRT1, AFG3L2, FOXRED1, PANK2, SCP2, GAMT, SPR, SUCLA2, PINK1, TIMM8A, MMADHC, SUOX, PTS, QDPR, MPV17, SDHAF1 , (...)

View the complete list with 57 more genes
Specificity
2 %
Genes
100 %
Epilepsy/Seizure.

By Knight Diagnostic Laboratories - Molecular Diagnostic Center Oregon Health & Science University in United States.

MTHFR, UBE3A, BTD, ADSL, MMACHC, ADGRV1, POLG, MECP2, LIAS, ABAT, GAMT, GATM, STXBP1, CTSD, SLC25A22, GLDC, AMT, SLC9A6, ALDH5A1, ALDH7A1 , (...)

View the complete list with 78 more genes
Specificity
2 %
Genes
100 %
Movement Disorders Panel.

By Knight Diagnostic Laboratories - Molecular Diagnostic Center Oregon Health & Science University in United States.

PTEN, ATP7B, AUH, PSEN1, HPRT1, TRIM32, POLG, AFG3L2, FOXRED1, PANK2, SCP2, GAMT, SPR, SUCLA2, PARK7, PINK1, SQSTM1, TIMM8A, MMADHC, SUOX , (...)

View the complete list with 72 more genes
Specificity
2 %
Genes
100 %
Dystonia Exome Panel.

By Genetic Services Laboratory University of Chicago in United States.

AARS2, UQCRQ, ATP7B, AUH, BCS1L, PSEN1, GLB1, HPRT1, POLG, NDUFS4, AFG3L2, FOXRED1, NDUFAF2, PANK2, MECP2, NDUFA12, NDUFA9, TTC19, NDUFA10, SCP2 , (...)

View the complete list with 150 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Ataxia Exome Panel.

By Genetic Services Laboratory University of Chicago in United States.

FMR1, TTR, UBE3A, AARS2, ABHD12, PC, UQCRQ, UQCRB, HLCS, BTD, ATP7B, ATPAF2, AUH, BCKDHA, BCKDHB, BCS1L, TWNK, C12orf65, ADSL, PRKCG , (...)

View the complete list with 460 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
SLC19A3. Complete sequencing.

By Instituto de Medicina Genomica Instituto de Medicina Genomica in Spain.

SLC19A3
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
Biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease (sequence analysis of SLC19A3 gene).

By CGC Genetics in Portugal.

SLC19A3
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
Epileptic encephalopathy (NGS panel for 67 genes).

By CGC Genetics in Portugal.

MTHFR, UBE3A, ADSL, CPT2, MECP2, GAMT, STXBP1, SLC25A22, GCSH, GLDC, AMT, SLC9A6, ALDH7A1, WWOX, ARX, CDKL5, FOXG1, PCDH19, SLC2A1, SYNGAP1 , (...)

View the complete list with 47 more genes
Specificity
2 %
Genes
100 %
Early Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection.

By PreventionGenetics PreventionGenetics in United States.

ADSL, POLG, MECP2, GAMT, STXBP1, CTSD, SLC25A22, SLC9A6, ALDH7A1, TPP1, CLN3, WWOX, FARS2, ARX, CDKL5, FOXG1, MEF2C, PCDH19, SLC2A1, TSC2 , (...)

View the complete list with 62 more genes
Specificity
2 %
Genes
100 %
Comprehensive Epilepsy and Seizure Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection.

By PreventionGenetics PreventionGenetics in United States.

UBE3A, ADSL, TUBB3, POLG, MECP2, GAMT, STXBP1, TUBA1A, CTSD, SLC25A22, SLC9A6, ALDH7A1, TPP1, CLN3, WWOX, FARS2, ARX, CDKL5, FOXG1, MEF2C , (...)

View the complete list with 133 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Biotin-Thiamine-Responsive Basal Ganglia Disease via the SLC19A3 Gene.

By PreventionGenetics PreventionGenetics in United States.

SLC19A3
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
Leukodystrophy and Leukoencephalopathy Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection.

By PreventionGenetics PreventionGenetics in United States.

PC, TYROBP, ATP7A, ATP7B, TWNK, ADSL, HSD17B4, CPS1, PSAP, GLB1, OCRL, POLG, NDUFS4, HSPD1, SLC25A4, RRM2B, FH, COQ9, DNM1L, DGUOK , (...)

View the complete list with 134 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Epilepsy and Seizure Plus Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection.

By PreventionGenetics PreventionGenetics in United States.

UBE3A, PTEN, ADSL, POLG, MECP2, LIAS, DHDDS, ABAT, SLC25A12, GAMT, GATM, STXBP1, CTSD, SLC25A22, GCSH, GLDC, AMT, SLC9A6, ALDH5A1, ALDH7A1 , (...)

View the complete list with 202 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Leigh and Leigh-Like Syndrome Sequencing Panel (Nuclear Genes Only) with CNV Detection.

By PreventionGenetics PreventionGenetics in United States.

UQCRQ, BCS1L, C12orf65, DLD, POLG, NDUFS4, FOXRED1, NDUFAF2, COQ9, PDSS2, NDUFA12, LIAS, NDUFA9, PDHB, TTC19, NDUFA10, NUBPL, SUCLA2, TSFM, GFM1 , (...)

View the complete list with 43 more genes
Specificity
2 %
Genes
100 %
Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation Deficiency Sequencing Panel (Nuclear Genes Only) with CNV Detection.

By PreventionGenetics PreventionGenetics in United States.

AARS2, ACAD9, YARS2, UQCRQ, UQCRB, ATP5F1E, ATPAF2, BCS1L, TWNK, C12orf65, ELAC2, OPA1, TRMU, DLD, POLG, NDUFS4, SLC25A4, GARS, AFG3L2, FOXRED1 , (...)

View the complete list with 154 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Leigh Syndrome.

By MGZ Medical Genetics Center in Germany.

ACAD9, ATP5F1E, ATPAF2, BCS1L, C12orf65, SDHAF2, SDHC, COX14, TTC19, SDHB, SCO2, PDHA1, COX15, SURF1, SDHAF1, LRPPRC, TACO1, MTFMT, SDHA, SDHD , (...)

View the complete list with 3 more genes
Specificity
5 %
Genes
100 %
SCL19A3.

By MGZ Medical Genetics Center in Germany.

SLC19A3
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
Neurogenetic Disorders - panels.

By MGZ Medical Genetics Center in Germany.

MTHFR, TTR, UBE3A, AARS2, ABHD12, ACAD9, ACADM, ACADS, AGL, ACADVL, YARS2, PC, UQCRQ, ARG1, UQCRB, ATP5F1E, ATP7B, ATPAF2, AUH, BCKDHA , (...)

View the complete list with 577 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Mitochondrial Encephalopathy / Leigh Syndrome – Basic Diagnostic.

By MGZ Medical Genetics Center in Germany.

AARS2, ACAD9, TWNK, TRMU, POLG, NDUFS4, RRM2B, MTO1, COQ9, PDSS2, PDSS1, COQ6, DGUOK, TMEM70, SUCLA2, COQ8A, TK2, COQ2, SCO2, ETHE1 , (...)

View the complete list with 13 more genes
Specificity
4 %
Genes
100 %
Epilepsy and Mitochondrial Encephalopathy.

By MGZ Medical Genetics Center in Germany.

UBE3A, YARS2, PC, UQCRQ, UQCRB, SDHAF2, OPA1, TRMU, WFS1, POLG, NDUFS4, SLC25A19, SLC25A4, FOXRED1, RRM2B, NDUFAF2, SDHC, PANK2, MECP2, MTO1 , (...)

View the complete list with 166 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Mitochondrial Diseases.

By MGZ Medical Genetics Center in Germany.

AARS2, ACAD9, ACADM, ACADS, AGL, ACADVL, YARS2, PC, UQCRQ, UQCRB, ATP5F1E, ATPAF2, AUH, BCS1L, TWNK, C12orf65, SDHAF2, CPT2, OPA1, TRMU , (...)

View the complete list with 148 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Mitochondrial Encephalopathy.

By MGZ Medical Genetics Center in Germany.

AARS2, ACAD9, YARS2, PC, UQCRQ, UQCRB, ATP5F1E, ATPAF2, AUH, BCS1L, TWNK, SDHAF2, OPA1, TRMU, WFS1, DLD, POLG, NDUFS4, SLC25A19, SLC25A4 , (...)

View the complete list with 111 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Epilepsy.

By MGZ Medical Genetics Center in Germany.

UBE3A, YARS2, PC, UQCRQ, UQCRB, SDHAF2, AMACR, OPA1, TRMU, WFS1, POLG, NDUFS4, SLC25A19, SLC25A4, FOXRED1, RRM2B, NDUFAF2, SDHC, PANK2, MECP2 , (...)

View the complete list with 192 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Thiamine Metabolism Dysfunction Syndrome 2.

By Bioscientia GmbH Center for Human Genetics in Germany.

SLC19A3
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
Thiamine metabolism dysfunction syndrome 2 (thiamine transporter deficiency) (SLC19A3).

By VU University Medical Center Metabolic Unit, PX 1X 009 in Netherlands.

SLC19A3
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
Epileptic encephalopathy panel.

By Genome Diagnostics Laboratory University Medical Center Utrecht in Netherlands.

UBE3A, MECP2, STXBP1, SLC25A22, ALDH7A1, ARX, CDKL5, FOXG1, MEF2C, PCDH19, SLC2A1, SYNGAP1, SCN1A, SCN9A, SLC19A3, SCN1B, SCN2A, GRIN2B, KCNT1, KCNQ2 , (...)

View the complete list with 12 more genes
Specificity
4 %
Genes
100 %
Encephalopathy thiamine-responsive.

By Centogene AG - the Rare Disease Company in Germany.

SLC19A3
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
AllNeuro panel.

By Centogene AG - the Rare Disease Company in Germany.

F2, F5, FMR1, HTT, HFE, MTHFR, TTR, UBE3A, VHL, PTEN, AARS2, ABHD12, ACACA, ACAD9, ACADL, ACADM, ACADS, AGL, ACADVL, ACAT1 , (...)

View the complete list with 1185 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Epileptic Encephalopathy Panel.

By CeGaT GmbH in Germany.

MTHFR, UBE3A, ADSL, CPT2, MECP2, GAMT, STXBP1, SLC25A22, GCSH, GLDC, AMT, SLC9A6, ALDH7A1, MOCS2, MOCS1, ARX, CDKL5, FOXG1, MEF2C, PCDH19 , (...)

View the complete list with 57 more genes
Specificity
2 %
Genes
100 %
Nuclear encoded Mitochondriopathies Panel.

By CeGaT GmbH in Germany.

MCCC1, MCCC2, AARS2, ACAD9, ACADM, ACADS, ACADVL, ACAT1, YARS2, FBP1, PC, UQCRQ, UQCRB, HLCS, ATP5F1E, BTD, ATPAF2, AUH, BCKDHA, BCKDHB , (...)

View the complete list with 263 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Ataxia and differential diagnoses Panel.

By CeGaT GmbH in Germany.

FMR1, AARS2, ABHD12, UQCRQ, BTD, ATP7B, AUH, TWNK, PRKCG, PAX6, INPP5E, AMACR, OPA1, WFS1, GLB1, CC2D2A, ELOVL4, TMEM67, NPHP1, CEP290 , (...)

View the complete list with 184 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Dystonia All Panel.

By CeGaT GmbH in Germany.

ATP7A, ATP7B, AUH, PANK2, MECP2, SPR, TIMM8A, HEXA, SLC25A15, GCDH, CYP27A1, PRKN, CLN3, PNKD, ARSA, ARX, NPC1, NPC2, SLC2A1, ATM , (...)

View the complete list with 34 more genes
Specificity
2 %
Genes
100 %
Single gene testing SLC19A3.

By CeGaT GmbH in Germany.

SLC19A3
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
SLC19A3 - Biotin-Responsive Basal Ganglia Disease.

By Centre for Inherited Metabolic Diseases Karolinska University Hospital in Sweden.

SLC19A3
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
Mitochondrial Diseases (mtDNA and 133 nuclear genes).

By Asper Biogene Asper Biogene LLC in Estonia.

AARS2, ACAD9, ACADL, ACADM, ACADS, ACADVL, YARS2, FBP1, PC, GYS2, UQCRQ, UQCRB, HLCS, ATP5F1E, ATPAF2, AUH, BCS1L, TWNK, C12orf65, SLC37A4 , (...)

View the complete list with 112 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Invitae Epilepsy Panel.

By Invitae in United States.

UBE3A, ADSL, POLG, MECP2, LIAS, GAMT, GATM, STXBP1, CTSD, SLC25A22, SLC9A6, ALDH5A1, ALDH7A1, TPP1, CLN3, WWOX, PNKD, SLC6A8, ARX, CDKL5 , (...)

View the complete list with 105 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Invitae Biotin-Thiamine-Responsive Basal Ganglia Disease (BTBGD) Test.

By Invitae in United States.

SLC19A3
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
Invitae Treatable Neurometabolic Disorders Panel.

By Invitae in United States.

MTHFR, MCCC1, MCCC2, ACAT1, ARG1, HLCS, ATP7A, BTD, ATP7B, AUH, BCKDHA, BCKDHB, MMACHC, AMN, MTR, MTRR, CPS1, HSD17B10, DLD, SLC25A13 , (...)

View the complete list with 72 more genes
Specificity
2 %
Genes
100 %
LEIGH SYNDROME.

By GENETAQ Molecular Genetics Centre and Diagnosis of Rare Diseases in Spain.

BCS1L, DLD, COQ2, SCO2, PDHA1, COX15, SURF1, TACO1, SLC19A3, COX10
Specificity
10 %
Genes
100 %
Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders: Sequencing Panel.

By EGL Genetic Diagnostics Eurofins Clinical Diagnostics in United States.

MTHFR, UBE3A, ADSL, ADGRV1, SHH, POLG, SLC25A19, MECP2, LIAS, ABAT, GAMT, GATM, STXBP1, CTSD, SLC25A22, SLC9A6, ALDH5A1, ALDH7A1, NDUFA1, CYP27A1 , (...)

View the complete list with 90 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Neurology: Sequencing Panel.

By EGL Genetic Diagnostics Eurofins Clinical Diagnostics in United States.

UBE3A, ADSL, TUBB3, CC2D2A, TMEM67, NPHP1, ADGRV1, CEP290, SHH, POLG, SLC25A19, MECP2, LIAS, GAMT, GATM, STXBP1, TUBA1A, RARS2, CTSD, SLC25A22 , (...)

View the complete list with 144 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Dystonia: Sequencing Panel.

By EGL Genetic Diagnostics Eurofins Clinical Diagnostics in United States.

PTEN, ATP7B, AUH, PSEN1, HPRT1, AFG3L2, FOXRED1, PANK2, SCP2, GAMT, SPR, SUCLA2, PINK1, TIMM8A, MMADHC, SUOX, PTS, QDPR, MPV17, SDHAF1 , (...)

View the complete list with 62 more genes
Specificity
2 %
Genes
100 %
Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders: Deletion/Duplication Panel.

By EGL Genetic Diagnostics Eurofins Clinical Diagnostics in United States.

MTHFR, UBE3A, ADSL, ADGRV1, SHH, POLG, SLC25A19, MECP2, LIAS, ABAT, GAMT, GATM, STXBP1, CTSD, SLC25A22, SLC9A6, ALDH7A1, NDUFA1, TPP1, CLN3 , (...)

View the complete list with 87 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
SLC19A3.

By Fulgent Genetics Fulgent Genetics in United States.

SLC19A3
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
Essential Epilepsy NGS Panel.

By Fulgent Genetics Fulgent Genetics in United States.

UBE3A, ADSL, POLG, MECP2, GAMT, STXBP1, SLC25A22, SLC9A6, ALDH7A1, ARX, CDKL5, FOXG1, MEF2C, PCDH19, SLC2A1, TSC2, SYNGAP1, TSC1, SCN1A, CHRNB2 , (...)

View the complete list with 50 more genes
Specificity
2 %
Genes
100 %
Early-Onset Epileptic Encephalopathy NGS Panel.

By Fulgent Genetics Fulgent Genetics in United States.

UBE3A, AUH, ADSL, ADGRV1, POLG, MECP2, LIAS, SLC25A12, GAMT, GATM, STXBP1, CTSD, SLC25A22, SLC9A6, ALDH7A1, TPP1, CLN3, WWOX, FARS2, SLC6A8 , (...)

View the complete list with 113 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Comprehensive Epilepsy NGS Panel.

By Fulgent Genetics Fulgent Genetics in United States.

MTHFR, UBE3A, PC, ARG1, BTD, ATPAF2, AUH, BCS1L, TWNK, C12orf65, ADSL, PAX6, AMACR, CPT2, PSAP, GNPTAB, GLB1, CC2D2A, PRODH, ATP6V0A2 , (...)

View the complete list with 427 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Epileptic Encephalopathy Panel.

By Blueprint Genetics in Finland.

HTT, MTHFR, UBE3A, ADSL, CPT2, POLG, NDUFS4, MECP2, DNM1L, TTC19, NUBPL, ABAT, GAMT, STXBP1, SLC25A22, GLDC, AMT, ETHE1, D2HGDH, SLC9A6 , (...)

View the complete list with 108 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Comprehensive Epilepsy Panel.

By Blueprint Genetics in Finland.

HTT, MTHFR, UBE3A, ARG1, BTD, ADSL, AMACR, CPT2, PSAP, GLB1, PRODH, GNE, HSD17B10, POLG, NDUFS4, HSPD1, AFG3L2, FOXRED1, FH, MECP2 , (...)

View the complete list with 263 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease.

By Bioarray in Spain.

SLC19A3
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
LEIGH SYNDROME: NGS PANEL-1.

By Laboratorio de Genetica Clinica SL in Spain.

BCS1L, DLD, NDUFS4, PDHB, COQ2, SCO2, PDHA1, COX15, SURF1, NDUFS8, NDUFS7, TACO1, SDHA, SLC19A3, COX10
Specificity
7 %
Genes
100 %
LEIGH SYNDROME: NGS PANEL-2.

By Laboratorio de Genetica Clinica SL in Spain.

ACAD9, BCS1L, DLD, NDUFS4, FOXRED1, NDUFAF2, PDSS2, NDUFA12, NDUFA9, PDHB, NDUFAF1, TTC19, NDUFA10, SUCLA2, TUFM, COQ2, SCO2, PDHA1, NDUFA2, COX15 , (...)

View the complete list with 23 more genes
Specificity
3 %
Genes
100 %
Basal Ganglia with Response to Biotin Disease, Sequencing SLC19A3 Gene.

By Reference Laboratory Genetics in Spain.

SLC19A3
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
Leigh Syndrome, Panel Massive Sequencing (NGS) 10 Genes.

By Reference Laboratory Genetics in Spain.

BCS1L, DLD, COQ2, SCO2, PDHA1, COX15, SURF1, TACO1, SLC19A3, COX10
Specificity
10 %
Genes
100 %

Alternate names

Thiamine Metabolism Dysfunction Syndrome 2 (biotin- Or Thiamine-responsive Type); Thmd2 Is also known as basal ganglia disease, biotin-responsive;bbgd, btbgd, encephalopathy, thiamine-responsive;bbgd; btbgd; biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease.



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