Parkinson Disease, Late-onset; Pd

Description

Parkinson disease was first described by James Parkinson in 1817. It is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer disease (AD ), affecting approximately 1% of the population over age 50 (Polymeropoulos et al., 1996). ReviewsWarner and Schapira (2003) reviewed the genetic and environmental causes of Parkinson disease. Feany (2004) reviewed the genetics of Parkinson disease and provided a speculative model of interactions among proteins implicated in PD. Lees et al. (2009) provided a review of Parkinson disease, with emphasis on diagnosis, neuropathology, and treatment. Genetic Heterogeneity of Parkinson DiseaseSeveral loci for autosomal dominant Parkinson disease have been identified, including PARK1 (OMIM ) and PARK4, caused by mutation in or triplication of the alpha-synuclein gene (SNCA ), respectively, on 4q22; PARK5 (OMIM ), caused by mutation in the UCHL1 gene on 4p13; PARK8 (OMIM ), caused by mutation in the LRRK2 gene (OMIM ) on 12q12; PARK11 (OMIM ), caused by mutation in the GIGYF2 gene (OMIM ) on 2q37; PARK13 (OMIM ), caused by mutation in the HTRA2 gene (OMIM ) on 2p13; PARK17 (OMIM ), caused by mutation in the VPS35 gene (OMIM ) on 16q11; and PARK18 (OMIM ), caused by mutation in the EIF4G1 gene (OMIM ) on 3q27.Several loci for autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson disease have been identified: PARK2 (OMIM ), caused by mutation in the gene encoding parkin (PARK2 ) on 6q26; PARK6 (OMIM ), caused by mutation in the PINK1 gene (OMIM ) on 1p36; PARK7 (OMIM ), caused by mutation in the DJ1 gene (PARK7 ) on 1p36; PARK14 (OMIM ), caused by mutation in the PLA2G6 gene (OMIM ) on 22q13; PARK15 (OMIM ), caused by mutation in the FBXO7 gene (OMIM ) on 22q12-q13; PARK19A (OMIM ) and PARK19B (see {615528}), caused by mutation in the DNAJC6 gene (OMIM ) on 1p32; and PARK20 (OMIM ), caused by mutation in the SYNJ1 gene (OMIM ) on 21q22.PARK3 (OMIM ) has been mapped to chromosome 2p13; PARK10 (OMIM ) has been mapped to chromosome 1p34-p32; PARK16 (OMIM ) has been mapped to chromosome 1q32. See also PARK21 (OMIM ). A locus on the X chromosome has been identified (PARK12 ). There is also evidence that mitochondrial mutations may cause or contribute to Parkinson disease (see {556500}). Susceptibility to the development of the more common late-onset form of Parkinson disease has been associated with polymorphisms or mutations in several genes, including GBA (OMIM ), MAPT (OMIM ), MC1R (OMIM ), ADH1C (OMIM ), and genes at the HLA locus (see, e.g., HLA-DRA, {142860}). Each of these risk factors independently may have a modest effect on disease development, but together may have a substantial cumulative effect (Hamza et al., 2010).Susceptibility to PD may also be conferred by expanded trinucleotide repeats in several genes causing other neurologic disorders usually characterized by spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), including the ATXN2 (OMIM ), ATXN3 (OMIM ), TBP (OMIM ), and ATXN8OS (OMIM ) genes.

Clinical Features

Top most frequent phenotypes and symptoms related to Parkinson Disease, Late-onset; Pd

  • Ataxia
  • Cognitive impairment
  • Dysarthria
  • Tremor
  • Dysphagia
  • Dystonia
  • Depressivity
  • Constipation
  • Dementia
  • Rigidity

And another 22 symptoms. If you need more information about this disease we can help you.

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Incidence and onset information

— Currently we don't have prevalence information about this disease (Not enough data available about incidence and published cases.)
No data available about the known clinical features onset.

Alternative names

Parkinson Disease, Late-onset; Pd Is also known as park.

Researches and researchers

Currently, we don't have any information about doctors, researches or researchers related to this disease. Please contact us if you would like to appear here.


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Parkinson Disease, Late-onset; Pd Recommended genes panels

Panel Name, Specifity and genes Tested/covered
Parkinson disease (NGS panel for 33 genes).

By CGC Genetics (Portugal).

SLC6A3, SNCA, SNCAIP, SNCB, SYNJ1, TAF1, TH, GIGYF2, UCHL1, VPS35, FBXO7, HTRA2, PINK1, DNAJC6, PARK7, ATP6AP2, LRRK2, CSF1R, ADH1C, DCTN1 , (...)

View the complete list with 12 more genes
Specificity
10 %
Genes
50 %
ADH1C.

By Fulgent Genetics Fulgent Genetics (United States).

ADH1C
Specificity
100 %
Genes
17 %
MAPT DNA Sequencing Test.

By Athena Diagnostics Inc (United States).

MAPT
Specificity
100 %
Genes
17 %
Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) Evaluation.

By Athena Diagnostics Inc (United States).

C9orf72, GRN, MAPT
Specificity
34 %
Genes
17 %
Frontotemporal Dementia (FTDP) - MAPT Gene, Exon 10 Only.

By Center for Genetics at Saint Francis Saint Francis Hospital (United States).

MAPT
Specificity
100 %
Genes
17 %
Frontotemporal Dementia w/ Parkinsonism (FTDP) - MAPT Gene.

By Center for Genetics at Saint Francis Saint Francis Hospital (United States).

MAPT
Specificity
100 %
Genes
17 %
Dementia.

By Knight Diagnostic Laboratories - Molecular Diagnostic Center Oregon Health & Science University (United States).

SORL1, TARDBP, VCP, FIG4, OPTN, TREM2, CSF1R, CHMP2B, DCTN1, C9orf72, FUS, ALS2, SETX, GRN, ANG, APOE, APP, MAPT, PRNP, PSEN1 , (...)

View the complete list with 1 more genes
Specificity
5 %
Genes
17 %
Movement Disorders Panel.

By Knight Diagnostic Laboratories - Molecular Diagnostic Center Oregon Health & Science University (United States).

SCP2, SGCE, SLC20A2, SLC2A1, SLC6A3, SNCA, SPR, SQSTM1, SUCLA2, SUOX, TAF1, TH, TIMM8A, TREX1, MCOLN1, VPS35, FBXO7, CACNA1A, NPC2, PINK1 , (...)

View the complete list with 72 more genes
Specificity
3 %
Genes
34 %

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Sources and references

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