Multiple Mitochondrial Dysfunctions Syndrome 4; Mmds4

Description

MMDS4 is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder that usually results in death in early childhood. Affected individuals have normal development for the first months of life, but thereafter show progressive loss of motor and social skills with hypotonia, spasticity, and nystagmus. Patients regress to a vegetative state with lack of eye contact and speech, and poor feeding. Most patients have optic atrophy, and some may develop seizures. Brain imaging shows diffuse leukodystrophy in the subcortical region, brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord. Laboratory studies tend to show increased CSF glycine and decreased activity of mitochondrial complex II; there may be additional biochemical evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction (summary by Alaimo et al., 2018).For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome, see MMDS1 (OMIM ).

Clinical Features

Top most frequent phenotypes and symptoms related to Multiple Mitochondrial Dysfunctions Syndrome 4; Mmds4

  • Seizures
  • Generalized hypotonia
  • Nystagmus
  • Spasticity
  • Feeding difficulties
  • Visual impairment
  • Hyperreflexia
  • Optic atrophy
  • Abnormality of the skeletal system
  • Respiratory insufficiency

And another 14 symptoms. If you need more information about this disease we can help you.

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Incidence and onset information

— Currently we don't have prevalence information about this disease (Not enough data available about incidence and published cases.)
No data available about the known clinical features onset.

Researches and researchers

Currently, we don't have any information about doctors, researches or researchers related to this disease. Please contact us if you would like to appear here.

Multiple Mitochondrial Dysfunctions Syndrome 4; Mmds4 Recommended genes panels

Panel Name, Specifity and genes Tested/covered
Leukodystrophy and Leukoencephalopathy Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection.

By PreventionGenetics PreventionGenetics (United States).

SCP2, AIMP1, SDHB, SLC16A2, SLC17A5, SLC25A1, SLC25A12, SLC25A4, SOX10, SPG11, SPG7, SUCLA2, SURF1, TWNK, ACOX1, TREX1, TUFM, TYROBP, WARS2, MCOLN1 , (...)

View the complete list with 135 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation Deficiency Sequencing Panel (Nuclear Genes Only) with CNV Detection.

By PreventionGenetics PreventionGenetics (United States).

BCS1L, MRPL12, MRPL3, SCO1, SCO2, SDHB, SDHD, SLC25A1, SLC25A3, SLC25A4, SPG7, SUCLA2, SUCLG1, SURF1, TAZ, TWNK, TK2, TSFM, TUFM, UQCRB , (...)

View the complete list with 154 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Mental retardation - different panels.

By Institute of Human Genetics Uniklinik RWTH Aachen (Germany).

RGS7, RIT1, RMRP, BCS1L, RPL10, RPS6KA3, RRAS, SALL1, SC5D, ATXN10, BLM, SCN1A, SCN2A, SCN8A, SCO2, AIMP1, SDCCAG8, SDHA, SDHB, SGSH , (...)

View the complete list with 845 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Neurogenetic Disorders - panels.

By MGZ Medical Genetics Center (Germany).

BCS1L, RTN2, RYR1, SACS, SCN1A, SCN1B, SCN2A, SCN8A, SCO1, SCO2, AIMP1, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SGCE, SLC16A2, SLC17A5, SLC19A2, SLC1A3 , (...)

View the complete list with 572 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome type 4.

By Centogene AG - the Rare Disease Company (Germany).

ISCA2
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
Leukodystrophy / Leukencephalopathy and differential diagnoses Panel.

By CeGaT GmbH (Germany).

BCS1L, SCO2, SCP2, AIMP1, SDHA, SLC16A2, SLC17A5, SLC25A1, SLC25A12, SOX10, SPG11, STX11, STXBP2, SUCLA2, SURF1, ACOX1, TREX1, TUFM, TYROBP, MCOLN1 , (...)

View the complete list with 155 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
ISCA2.

By Fulgent Genetics Fulgent Genetics (United States).

ISCA2
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %

You can get up to -1 more panels with our dedicated tool

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Sources and references

You can check the following sources for additional information.

OMIM ORPHANET Rare Disease Symptoms Checker

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