Diabetes Mellitus, Permanent Neonatal; Pndm

Description

Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM), defined as insulin-requiring hyperglycemia within the first 3 months of life, is a rare entity, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 400,000 neonates (Shield, 2000). In about half of the neonates, diabetes is transient (see {601410}) and resolves at a median age of 3 months, whereas the rest have a permanent insulin-dependent form of diabetes (PNDM). In a significant number of patients with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus, type II diabetes (see {125853}) appears later in life (Arthur et al., 1997). PNDM is distinct from childhood-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus type I (IDDM ).Massa et al. (2005) noted that the diagnostic time limit for PNDM has changed over the years, ranging from onset within 30 days of birth to 3 months of age. However, as patients with the clinical phenotype caused by mutation in the KCNJ11 gene have been identified with onset up to 6 months of age, Massa et al. (2005) suggested that the term 'permanent diabetes mellitus of infancy' (PDMI) replace PNDM as a more accurate description, and include those who present up to 6 months of age. The authors suggested that the new acronym be linked to the gene product (e.g., GCK-PDMI, KCNJ11-PDMI) to avoid confusion with patients with early-onset, autoimmune type I diabetes.Colombo et al. (2008) proposed that, because individuals with INS gene mutations may present with diabetes well beyond 6 months of age and cannot be distinguished from patients with type 1 diabetes except for the absence of type 1 diabetes autoantibodies, the term PNDM should be replaced with 'monogenic diabetes of infancy (MDI),' a broad definition including any form of diabetes, permanent or transient, with onset during the first years of life and caused by a single gene defect.

Clinical Features

Top most frequent phenotypes and symptoms related to Diabetes Mellitus, Permanent Neonatal; Pndm

  • Seizures
  • Global developmental delay
  • Generalized hypotonia
  • Failure to thrive
  • Muscle weakness
  • Ptosis
  • Flexion contracture
  • Motor delay
  • Peripheral neuropathy
  • Intrauterine growth retardation

And another 37 symptoms. If you need more information about this disease we can help you.

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Incidence and onset information

— Currently we don't have prevalence information about this disease (Not enough data available about incidence and published cases.)
No data available about the known clinical features onset.

Alternative names

Diabetes Mellitus, Permanent Neonatal; Pndm Is also known as diabetes mellitus, permanent, of infancy, pdmi.

Researches and researchers

Currently, we don't have any information about doctors, researches or researchers related to this disease. Please contact us if you would like to appear here.


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Diabetes Mellitus, Permanent Neonatal; Pndm Recommended genes panels

Panel Name, Specifity and genes Tested/covered
Congenital Hyperinsulinism Evaluation.

By Athena Diagnostics Inc (United States).

GCK, GLUD1, ABCC8, KCNJ11
Specificity
75 %
Genes
75 %
KCNJ11 (NDM) DNA Sequencing Test.

By Athena Diagnostics Inc (United States).

KCNJ11
Specificity
100 %
Genes
25 %
Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus Evaluation.

By Athena Diagnostics Inc (United States).

GCK, ABCC8, INS, PDX1, KCNJ11
Specificity
80 %
Genes
100 %
KCNJ11 (CH) DNA Sequencing Test.

By Athena Diagnostics Inc (United States).

KCNJ11
Specificity
100 %
Genes
25 %
Epilepsy Advanced Sequencing and CNV Evaluation.

By Athena Diagnostics Inc (United States).

SCN1A, SCN1B, SCN2A, SCN3A, SCN5A, SCN8A, SCN9A, SHH, ST3GAL3, ST3GAL5, STIL, SIX3, SLC2A1, SLC35A2, SLC6A1, SLC6A8, SLC9A6, SMC1A, KDM5C, SMS , (...)

View the complete list with 214 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
25 %
Epilepsy Advanced Sequencing and CNV Evaluation-Epileptic Encephalopathy.

By Athena Diagnostics Inc (United States).

SCN1A, SCN1B, SCN2A, SCN8A, SCN9A, ST3GAL5, SLC2A1, SLC35A2, SLC9A6, SIK1, SPTAN1, CDKL5, STXBP1, SYNGAP1, TCF4, TREX1, UBE3A, WWOX, CNTNAP2, CACNA2D1 , (...)

View the complete list with 47 more genes
Specificity
2 %
Genes
25 %
NGS Epilepsy/Seizure Panel.

By Greenwood Genetic Center Diagnostic Laboratories Greenwood Genetic Center (United States).

SCN1A, SCN1B, SCN2A, SCN5A, SCN8A, SCN9A, SHH, ST3GAL3, ST3GAL5, STIL, SIX3, SLC2A1, SLC35A2, SLC9A6, SNAP25, SPTAN1, CDKL5, STXBP1, SYN1, SYNGAP1 , (...)

View the complete list with 124 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
25 %
Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young.

By Knight Diagnostic Laboratories - Molecular Diagnostic Center Oregon Health & Science University (United States).

BLK, SLC2A2, HNF1A, HNF1B, KLF11, WFS1, NEUROG3, IER3IP1, RFX6, CP, PTF1A, CISD2, GLIS3, EIF2AK3, AKT2, GATA6, GCK, HNF4A, ABCC8, INS , (...)

View the complete list with 5 more genes
Specificity
16 %
Genes
100 %

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Sources and references

You can check the following sources for additional information.

OMIM ORPHANET Rare Disease Search Engine

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