Dehydrated Hereditary Stomatocytosis 1 With Or Without Pseudohyperkalemia And/or Perinatal Edema; Dhs1

Description

Dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis (DHS), also known as hereditary xerocytosis, is an autosomal dominant hemolytic anemia characterized by primary erythrocyte dehydration. DHS erythrocytes exhibit decreased total cation and potassium content that are not accompanied by a proportional net gain of sodium and water. DHS patients typically exhibit mild to moderate compensated hemolytic anemia, with an increased erythrocyte mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and a decreased osmotic fragility, both of which reflect cellular dehydration (summary by Zarychanski et al., 2012). Patients may also show perinatal edema and pseudohyperkalemia due to loss of K+ from red cells stored at room temperature. A minor proportion of red cells appear as stomatocytes on blood films. Complications such as splenomegaly and cholelithiasis, resulting from increased red cell trapping in the spleen and elevated bilirubin levels, respectively, may occur. The course of DHS is frequently associated with iron overload, which may lead to hepatosiderosis (summary by Albuisson et al., 2013).Dehydrated red blood cells, including those from hereditary xerocytosis patients, show delayed infection rates to Plasmodium in vitro, suggesting a potential protective mechanism against malaria (Tiffert et al., 2005). A polymorphism in PIEZO1 that is enriched in populations of African descent and results in xerocytosis conferred resistance to Plasmodium infection in vitro (see {611184.0016}).The 'leaky red blood cells' in familial pseudohyperkalemia show a temperature-dependent loss of potassium when stored at room temperature, manifesting as apparent hyperkalemia. The red blood cells show a reduced life span in vivo, but there is no frank hemolysis. Studies of cation content and transport show a marginal increase in permeability at 37 degrees C and a degree of cellular dehydration, qualitatively similar to the changes seen in dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis. Physiologic studies show that the passive leak of potassium has an abnormal temperature dependence, such that the leak is less sensitive to temperature than that in normal cells (summary by Iolascon et al., 1999).Carella et al. (2004) noted that 3 clinical forms of pseudohyperkalemia unassociated with hematologic manifestations, based predominantly on the leak-temperature dependence curve, had been reported: (1) pseudohyperkalemia Edinburgh, in which the curve has a shallow slope; (2) pseudohyperkalemia Chiswick or Falkirk (see {609153}), in which the curve is shouldered; and (3) pseudohyperkalemia Cardiff (see {609153}), in which the temperature dependence of the leak shows a 'U-shaped' profile with a minimum at 23 degrees C. Gore et al. (2004) stated that potassium-flux temperature profiles are consistent both from year to year in an individual as well as consistent within affected members of a pedigree. Genetic Heterogeneity of Hereditary StomatocytosisDehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis-2 (DHS2 ) is caused by mutation in the KCNN4 gene (OMIM ) on chromosome 19q13. Another form of stomatocytosis, involving familial pseudohyperkalemia with minimal hematologic abnormalities (PSHK2 ), is caused by mutation in the ABCB6 gene (OMIM ) on chromosome 2q35. Cryohydrocytosis (CHC ) is caused by mutation in the SLC4A1 gene (OMIM ) on chromosome 17q21, and stomatin-deficient cryohydrocytosis with neurologic defects (SDCHCN ) is caused by mutation in the SLC2A1 gene (OMIM ) on chromosome 1p34. An overhydrated form of hereditary stomatocytosis (OHST ) is caused by mutation in the RHAG gene (OMIM ) on chromosome 6p12.See {137280} for a discussion of the association of familial stomatocytosis and hypertrophic gastritis in the dog, an autosomal recessive syndrome. ReviewsDelaunay (2004) reviewed genetic disorders of red cell membrane permeability to monovalent cations, noting 'inevitable' overlap between entities based on clinical phenotype.Bruce (2009) provided a review of hereditary stomatocytosis and cation-leaky red cells, stating that consistent features include hemolytic anemia, a monovalent cation leak, and changes in red cell morphology that appear to follow a continuum, from normal discocyte to stomatocyte to echinocyte in DHS, and from discocyte to stomatocyte to spherocyte to fragmentation in OHST. Bruce (2009) suggested that the underlying pathologic mechanism might involve misfolded mutant proteins that escape the quality control system of the cell and reach the red cell membrane, where they disrupt the red cell membrane structure and cause a cation leak that alters the hydration of the red cell, thereby changing the morphology and viability of the cell.King and Zanella (2013) provided an overview of 2 groups of nonimmune hereditary red cell membrane disorders caused by defects in membrane proteins located in distinct layers of the red cell membrane: red cell cytoskeleton disorders, including hereditary spherocytosis (see {182900}), hereditary elliptocytosis (see {611804}), and hereditary pyropoikilocytosis (OMIM ); and cation permeability disorders of the red cell membrane, or hereditary stomatocytoses, including DHS, OHST, CHC, and PSHK. The authors noted that because there is no specific screening test for the hereditary stomatocytoses, a preliminary diagnosis is based on the presence of a compensated hemolytic anemia, macrocytosis, and a temperature- or time-dependent pseudohyperkalemia in some patients. King et al. (2015) reported the International Council for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH) guidelines for laboratory diagnosis of nonimmune hereditary red cell membrane disorders.

Clinical Features

Top most frequent phenotypes and symptoms related to Dehydrated Hereditary Stomatocytosis 1 With Or Without Pseudohyperkalemia And/or Perinatal Edema; Dhs1

  • Anemia
  • Hepatomegaly
  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Edema
  • Splenomegaly
  • Respiratory failure
  • Jaundice
  • Elevated hepatic transaminase
  • Pallor

And another 33 symptoms. If you need more information about this disease we can help you.

Click here to know more about Mendelian.

Incidence and onset information

— Currently we don't have prevalence information about this disease (Not enough data available about incidence and published cases.)
No data available about the known clinical features onset.

Alternative names

Dehydrated Hereditary Stomatocytosis 1 With Or Without Pseudohyperkalemia And/or Perinatal Edema; Dhs1 Is also known as pseudohyperkalemia, familial, 1, due to red cell leak, pshk1, dhs, dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis, xerocytosis, hereditary, desiccytosis, hereditary, pseudohyperkalemia edinburgh.

Researches and researchers

Currently, we don't have any information about doctors, researches or researchers related to this disease. Please contact us if you would like to appear here.


Mendelian

Accelerate your rare disease diagnosis with us

Learn more

Dehydrated Hereditary Stomatocytosis 1 With Or Without Pseudohyperkalemia And/or Perinatal Edema; Dhs1 Recommended genes panels

Panel Name, Specifity and genes Tested/covered
Non-immune Hydrops Panel.

By Greenwood Genetic Center Diagnostic Laboratories Greenwood Genetic Center (United States).

RIT1, RPL11, RPL35A, RPL5, RPS10, RPS17, RPS19, RPS24, RPS26, SEC23B, SLC17A5, BRAF, SMPD1, SOS1, SOS2, SOX18, UROS, CBL, SHOC2, ALG9 , (...)

View the complete list with 66 more genes
Specificity
2 %
Genes
100 %
Red Blood Cell Membrane Disorders panel by next-generation sequencing (NGS).

By Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center Laboratory of Genetics and Genomics Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (United States).

RHAG, SLC2A1, SPTA1, SPTB, XK, ATP11C, ABCG5, ABCG8, COL4A1, PIEZO1, EPB41, EPB42, GYPC, ANK1, KCNN4
Specificity
7 %
Genes
100 %
Hemolytic Anemia Panel by next-generation sequencing (NGS).

By Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center Laboratory of Genetics and Genomics Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (United States).

RHAG, SEC23B, SLC2A1, SPTA1, SPTB, TPI1, XK, ATP11C, ABCG5, ABCG8, LPIN2, CDAN1, NT5C3A, COL4A1, C15orf41, PIEZO1, EPB41, EPB42, AK1, ALAS2 , (...)

View the complete list with 16 more genes
Specificity
3 %
Genes
100 %
PIEZO1 Sequencing.

By Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center Laboratory of Genetics and Genomics Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (United States).

PIEZO1
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
PIEZO1 Deletion/duplication analysis.

By Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center Laboratory of Genetics and Genomics Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (United States).

PIEZO1
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
Hemolytic Anemia Deletion/Duplication Panel.

By Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center Laboratory of Genetics and Genomics Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (United States).

RHAG, SEC23B, SLC2A1, SPTA1, SPTB, TPI1, XK, ABCG5, ABCG8, LPIN2, CDAN1, NT5C3A, C15orf41, PIEZO1, EPB41, EPB42, AK1, G6PD, ALDOA, GATA1 , (...)

View the complete list with 12 more genes
Specificity
4 %
Genes
100 %
Red Blood Cell Membrane Disorders Deletion/Duplication Panel.

By Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center Laboratory of Genetics and Genomics Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (United States).

RHAG, SLC2A1, SPTA1, SPTB, XK, ABCG5, ABCG8, PIEZO1, EPB41, EPB42, GYPC, ANK1
Specificity
9 %
Genes
100 %
Hereditary Hemolytic Anemia Panel, Sequencing.

By ARUP Laboratories, Molecular Genetics and Genomics (United States).

SLCO1B1, SLCO1B3, SPTA1, SPTB, TPI1, UGT1A1, UGT1A6, UGT1A7, NT5C3A, ADA, CYB5R3, PIEZO1, EPB41, EPB42, AK1, G6PD, ALDOA, GCLC, GPI, GSS , (...)

View the complete list with 6 more genes
Specificity
4 %
Genes
100 %

We have 12 more panels available in our App

Get the app

Sources and references

You can check the following sources for additional information.

OMIM Rare Disease Search Engine

If you liked this article maybe you will also find interesting the following in-depth articles about other rare diseases, like MYASTHENIC SYNDROME, CONGENITAL, 10; CMS10 INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER WITH DYSMORPHIC FACIES AND PTOSIS; IDDDFP FECHTNER SYNDROME; FTNS

Need help with a diagnosis?

Learn more about how to achieve it with Mendelian


Learn more