Alexander Disease; Alxdrd

Description

In decreasing order of frequency, 3 forms of Alexander disease are recognized, based on age of onset: infantile, juvenile, and adult. Younger patients typically present with seizures, megalencephaly, developmental delay, and spasticity. In older patients, bulbar or pseudobulbar symptoms predominate, frequently accompanied by spasticity. The disease is progressive, with most patients dying within 10 years of onset. Imaging studies of the brain typically show cerebral white matter abnormalities, preferentially affecting the frontal region (Gorospe et al., 2002). All 3 forms have been shown to be caused by mutations in the GFAP gene.

Clinical Features

Top most frequent phenotypes and symptoms related to Alexander Disease; Alxdrd

  • Intellectual disability
  • Seizures
  • Global developmental delay
  • Scoliosis
  • Ataxia
  • Growth delay
  • Nystagmus
  • Failure to thrive
  • Motor delay
  • Muscular hypotonia
And another 84 symptoms. If you need more information about this disease we can help you.
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Incidence and onset information

Not enough data available about incidence and published cases.


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Alexander Disease; Alxdrd Recommended genes panels

Panel Name, Specifity and genes Tested/covered
Epilepsy Advanced Sequencing and CNV Evaluation.

By Athena Diagnostics Inc in United States.

UBE3A, ALPL, ADSL, PAX6, CPT2, ATP6V0A2, HSD17B10, HPRT1, ADGRV1, SHH, POLG, SLC25A19, PANK2, MECP2, LIAS, ABAT, GAMT, GATM, STXBP1, SUCLA2 , (...)

View the complete list with 214 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Epilepsy Advanced Sequencing and CNV Evaluation - Syndromic Disorders.

By Athena Diagnostics Inc in United States.

ATP6V0A2, HPRT1, ADGRV1, PANK2, RAI1, TSC2, SYNGAP1, SMC3, TSC1, NIPBL, PLA2G6, KCNA1, LGI1, KMT2D, MAGI2, KANSL1, ROGDI, PIGA, PIGN, PIGV , (...)

View the complete list with 11 more genes
Specificity
4 %
Genes
100 %
Epilepsy Advanced Sequencing and CNV Evaluation - Intellectual Disability.

By Athena Diagnostics Inc in United States.

ADSL, HSD17B10, MECP2, ABAT, GAMT, GATM, ALG9, SLC9A6, SLC6A8, ARX, CDKL5, CHRNA7, PCDH19, PLP1, SMC1A, GPC3, DPYD, SLC35A2, FOLR1, GABRB2 , (...)

View the complete list with 36 more genes
Specificity
2 %
Genes
100 %
GFAP (Alexander Disease) Sequencing Test.

By Athena Diagnostics Inc in United States.

GFAP
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
Ataxia Exome Panel.

By Genetic Services Laboratory University of Chicago in United States.

FMR1, TTR, UBE3A, AARS2, ABHD12, PC, UQCRQ, UQCRB, HLCS, BTD, ATP7B, ATPAF2, AUH, BCKDHA, BCKDHB, BCS1L, TWNK, C12orf65, ADSL, PRKCG , (...)

View the complete list with 460 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Alexander disease.

By Human Genetics Ruhr University in Germany.

GFAP
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
GFAP Gene Sequencing.

By GeneDx in United States.

GFAP
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
Alexander Disease.

By Clinic of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine General University Hospital in Prague and First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague in Czech Republic.

GFAP
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
GFAP. Complete sequencing.

By Instituto de Medicina Genomica Instituto de Medicina Genomica in Spain.

GFAP
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
Macrocephaly (NGS panel for 16 genes).

By CGC Genetics in Portugal.

PTEN, ASPA, NSD1, GPC3, MLC1, PIGA, PIGN, GFAP, MED12, NFIX, EZH2, PIK3CA, DHCR24, PIK3R2, AKT3, HEPACAM
Specificity
7 %
Genes
100 %
Alexander disease (sequence analysis of GFAP gene).

By CGC Genetics in Portugal.

GFAP
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
Comprehensive Epilepsy and Seizure Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection.

By PreventionGenetics PreventionGenetics in United States.

UBE3A, ADSL, TUBB3, POLG, MECP2, GAMT, STXBP1, TUBA1A, CTSD, SLC25A22, SLC9A6, ALDH7A1, TPP1, CLN3, WWOX, FARS2, ARX, CDKL5, FOXG1, MEF2C , (...)

View the complete list with 133 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Alexander Disease via GFAP Gene Sequencing with CNV Detection.

By PreventionGenetics PreventionGenetics in United States.

GFAP
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
Leukodystrophy and Leukoencephalopathy Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection.

By PreventionGenetics PreventionGenetics in United States.

PC, TYROBP, ATP7A, ATP7B, TWNK, ADSL, HSD17B4, CPS1, PSAP, GLB1, OCRL, POLG, NDUFS4, HSPD1, SLC25A4, RRM2B, FH, COQ9, DNM1L, DGUOK , (...)

View the complete list with 134 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Mental retardation - different panels.

By Institute of Human Genetics Cologne University in Germany.

FMR1, UBE3A, PTEN, MCCC1, MCCC2, ACAD9, PC, ANKH, HLCS, ATP7A, AUH, B4GALT7, BCKDHA, BCKDHB, BCS1L, C12orf65, ADSL, MMACHC, PRKCG, PAX6 , (...)

View the complete list with 847 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Macrocephaly.

By MGZ Medical Genetics Center in Germany.

PTEN, ASPA, TSC2, TSC1, NSD1, PTCH1, CDKN1C, GPC3, MLC1, EIF2B5, L1CAM, WASHC5, SETD2, OFD1, GRIA3, SYN1, CUL4B, RAB39B, GFAP, MED12 , (...)

View the complete list with 22 more genes
Specificity
3 %
Genes
100 %
GFAP.

By MGZ Medical Genetics Center in Germany.

GFAP
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
Mitochondrial Leucodystrophy.

By MGZ Medical Genetics Center in Germany.

AUH, DARS2, SDHAF1, GFAP, EIF2AK3
Specificity
20 %
Genes
100 %
Neurogenetic Disorders - panels.

By MGZ Medical Genetics Center in Germany.

MTHFR, TTR, UBE3A, AARS2, ABHD12, ACAD9, ACADM, ACADS, AGL, ACADVL, YARS2, PC, UQCRQ, ARG1, UQCRB, ATP5F1E, ATP7B, ATPAF2, AUH, BCKDHA , (...)

View the complete list with 577 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Mental Retardation and Dysmorphology - panels.

By MGZ Medical Genetics Center in Germany.

FMR1, UBE3A, PTEN, RECQL4, AGL, ATP7A, GAA, LRP5, SLC37A4, GNPTAB, GLB1, HSD17B10, OCRL, JAG1, NDP, HPRT1, NHS, RAF1, SMPD1, MECP2 , (...)

View the complete list with 323 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Syndromal Diseases - panels.

By MGZ Medical Genetics Center in Germany.

FMR1, UBE3A, PTEN, RECQL4, AGL, ATP7A, GAA, LRP5, SLC37A4, GNPTAB, GLB1, HSD17B10, OCRL, JAG1, NDP, HPRT1, NHS, RAF1, SMPD1, MECP2 , (...)

View the complete list with 322 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Epileptic Encephalopathy.

By MGZ Medical Genetics Center in Germany.

UBE3A, AMACR, POLG, PANK2, MECP2, GAMT, STXBP1, SLC25A22, GLDC, HEXA, HEXB, ALDH7A1, TPP1, CLN3, ARX, CDKL5, FOXG1, MEF2C, NPC1, NPC2 , (...)

View the complete list with 69 more genes
Specificity
2 %
Genes
100 %
Epilepsy and Mitochondrial Encephalopathy.

By MGZ Medical Genetics Center in Germany.

UBE3A, YARS2, PC, UQCRQ, UQCRB, SDHAF2, OPA1, TRMU, WFS1, POLG, NDUFS4, SLC25A19, SLC25A4, FOXRED1, RRM2B, NDUFAF2, SDHC, PANK2, MECP2, MTO1 , (...)

View the complete list with 166 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Mitochondrial Diseases.

By MGZ Medical Genetics Center in Germany.

AARS2, ACAD9, ACADM, ACADS, AGL, ACADVL, YARS2, PC, UQCRQ, UQCRB, ATP5F1E, ATPAF2, AUH, BCS1L, TWNK, C12orf65, SDHAF2, CPT2, OPA1, TRMU , (...)

View the complete list with 148 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Mitochondrial Encephalopathy.

By MGZ Medical Genetics Center in Germany.

AARS2, ACAD9, YARS2, PC, UQCRQ, UQCRB, ATP5F1E, ATPAF2, AUH, BCS1L, TWNK, SDHAF2, OPA1, TRMU, WFS1, DLD, POLG, NDUFS4, SLC25A19, SLC25A4 , (...)

View the complete list with 111 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Epilepsy.

By MGZ Medical Genetics Center in Germany.

UBE3A, YARS2, PC, UQCRQ, UQCRB, SDHAF2, AMACR, OPA1, TRMU, WFS1, POLG, NDUFS4, SLC25A19, SLC25A4, FOXRED1, RRM2B, NDUFAF2, SDHC, PANK2, MECP2 , (...)

View the complete list with 192 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Alexander disease (GFAP).

By VU University Medical Center Metabolic Unit, PX 1X 009 in Netherlands.

GFAP
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
Alexander disease.

By Centogene AG - the Rare Disease Company in Germany.

GFAP
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
AllNeuro panel.

By Centogene AG - the Rare Disease Company in Germany.

F2, F5, FMR1, HTT, HFE, MTHFR, TTR, UBE3A, VHL, PTEN, AARS2, ABHD12, ACACA, ACAD9, ACADL, ACADM, ACADS, AGL, ACADVL, ACAT1 , (...)

View the complete list with 1185 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Leukodystrophy / Leukencephalopathy Panel.

By CeGaT GmbH in Germany.

PSAP, HSPD1, ABCD1, GALC, L2HGDH, ARSA, ASPA, EIF2B1, GJC2, PLP1, MLC1, SUMF1, EIF2B5, EIF2B3, EIF2B2, EIF2B4, NOTCH3, FOLR1, SAMHD1, RNASEH2A , (...)

View the complete list with 15 more genes
Specificity
3 %
Genes
100 %
Macrocephaly Panel.

By CeGaT GmbH in Germany.

PTEN, GCDH, ASPA, NSD1, GPC3, MLC1, PIGA, PIGN, GFAP, MED12, NFIX, EZH2, PIK3CA, DHCR24, PIK3R2, AKT3, HEPACAM
Specificity
6 %
Genes
100 %
Leukodystrophy and Leukoencephalopathy Panel.

By CeGaT GmbH in Germany.

PSAP, HSPD1, ABCD1, GALC, L2HGDH, ARSA, ASPA, EIF2B1, GJC2, PLP1, MLC1, SUMF1, EIF2B5, EIF2B3, EIF2B2, EIF2B4, NOTCH3, FOLR1, SAMHD1, RNASEH2A , (...)

View the complete list with 15 more genes
Specificity
3 %
Genes
100 %
Macrocephaly Panel.

By CeGaT GmbH in Germany.

PTEN, GCDH, ASPA, NSD1, GPC3, MLC1, PIGA, PIGN, GFAP, MED12, NFIX, EZH2, PIK3CA, DHCR24, PIK3R2, AKT3, HEPACAM
Specificity
6 %
Genes
100 %
Hereditary Spastic Paraplegias (HSP) and differential diagnoses Panel.

By CeGaT GmbH in Germany.

MTHFR, ABHD12, ARG1, ATP7A, AUH, C12orf65, PSEN1, OPTN, OPA1, GLB1, ELOVL4, HSPD1, GARS, AFG3L2, PANK2, OPA3, VCP, ALDH18A1, MTPAP, SPR , (...)

View the complete list with 123 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Ataxia and differential diagnoses Panel.

By CeGaT GmbH in Germany.

FMR1, AARS2, ABHD12, UQCRQ, BTD, ATP7B, AUH, TWNK, PRKCG, PAX6, INPP5E, AMACR, OPA1, WFS1, GLB1, CC2D2A, ELOVL4, TMEM67, NPHP1, CEP290 , (...)

View the complete list with 184 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Basal ganglia calcification Panel.

By CeGaT GmbH in Germany.

TYROBP, POLG, PANK2, CA2, GALC, AIRE, BRAF, FOLR1, COL4A1, SAMHD1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2C, RNASEH2B, TREX1, GFAP, GATA3, ERCC6, IFIH1, ADAR, CTC1 , (...)

View the complete list with 7 more genes
Specificity
4 %
Genes
100 %
Leukodystrophy / Leukencephalopathy and differential diagnoses Panel.

By CeGaT GmbH in Germany.

AARS2, PC, TYROBP, ATP7A, ATP7B, AUH, BCS1L, C12orf65, MMACHC, HSD17B4, PSAP, GLB1, OCRL, POLG, NDUFS4, HSPD1, FOXRED1, NDUFAF2, NDUFA12, NDUFA9 , (...)

View the complete list with 155 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Single gene testing GFAP.

By CeGaT GmbH in Germany.

GFAP
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
Leukodystrophy / Leukoencephalopathy Panel.

By CeGaT GmbH in Germany.

AARS2, TYROBP, HSD17B4, PSAP, HSPD1, SCP2, DARS2, ABCD1, ALDH3A2, ACOX1, GALC, L2HGDH, GBE1, GCDH, CYP27A1, ARSA, ASPA, EIF2B1, GJC2, PLP1 , (...)

View the complete list with 56 more genes
Specificity
2 %
Genes
100 %
Leukodystrophy and Leukoencephalopathy.

By Asper Biogene Asper Biogene LLC in Estonia.

PSAP, HSPD1, SCP2, DARS2, ABCD1, GALC, L2HGDH, ARSA, ASPA, EIF2B1, GJC2, PLP1, MLC1, SUMF1, EIF2B5, EIF2B3, EIF2B2, EIF2B4, NOTCH3, FOLR1 , (...)

View the complete list with 19 more genes
Specificity
3 %
Genes
100 %
Alexander disease: GFAP gene sequence analysis.

By GENETAQ Molecular Genetics Centre and Diagnosis of Rare Diseases in Spain.

GFAP
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
Leukodistrophy.

By GENETAQ Molecular Genetics Centre and Diagnosis of Rare Diseases in Spain.

TYROBP, BEST1, HSD17B4, PSAP, HSPD1, SCP2, DARS2, ABCD1, PHYH, SDHAF1, NDUFV1, GALC, CYP27A1, SDHA, ARSA, ASPA, EIF2B1, GJC2, PLP1, PEX2 , (...)

View the complete list with 38 more genes
Specificity
2 %
Genes
100 %
Epilepsy NGS Panel.

By Fulgent Genetics Fulgent Genetics in United States.

MTHFR, UBE3A, PC, ARG1, BTD, ATPAF2, BCS1L, C12orf65, ADSL, PAX6, CPT2, PSAP, GNPTAB, GLB1, CC2D2A, PRODH, ATP6V0A2, GNE, HSD17B10, TMEM67 , (...)

View the complete list with 323 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Leukoencephalopathy NGS Panel.

By Fulgent Genetics Fulgent Genetics in United States.

PTEN, PSAP, HSPD1, SCP2, ABAT, SLC25A12, DARS2, ALDH3A2, ACOX1, ARSA, ASPA, EIF2B1, GJC2, PLP1, MLC1, EIF2B5, EIF2B3, EIF2B2, EIF2B4, NOTCH3 , (...)

View the complete list with 6 more genes
Specificity
4 %
Genes
100 %
Intellectual Disability NGS Panel.

By Fulgent Genetics Fulgent Genetics in United States.

BRCA2, F5, FMR1, MTHFR, TTR, UBE3A, PTEN, MCCC1, MCCC2, AGL, ACAT1, GYS2, ARG1, ATP7A, AUH, BCS1L, ADSL, FBLN5, LRP5, COL1A2 , (...)

View the complete list with 372 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
GFAP.

By Fulgent Genetics Fulgent Genetics in United States.

GFAP
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
Comprehensive Epilepsy NGS Panel.

By Fulgent Genetics Fulgent Genetics in United States.

MTHFR, UBE3A, PC, ARG1, BTD, ATPAF2, AUH, BCS1L, TWNK, C12orf65, ADSL, PAX6, AMACR, CPT2, PSAP, GNPTAB, GLB1, CC2D2A, PRODH, ATP6V0A2 , (...)

View the complete list with 427 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Ataxia Panel.

By Blueprint Genetics in Finland.

FMR1, ABHD12, TWNK, PRKCG, PAX6, INPP5E, OPA1, WFS1, CC2D2A, ELOVL4, TMEM67, ARL6, NPHP1, MKKS, CEP290, TTC8, TRIM32, POLG, NDUFS4, AFG3L2 , (...)

View the complete list with 137 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Macrocephaly / Overgrowth Syndrome Panel.

By Blueprint Genetics in Finland.

PTEN, ASPA, TSC2, TSC1, NSD1, PTCH1, CDKN1C, GPC3, MLC1, EIF2B5, L1CAM, WASHC5, SETD2, PIGA, OFD1, GRIA3, SYN1, CUL4B, RAB39B, GFAP , (...)

View the complete list with 23 more genes
Specificity
3 %
Genes
100 %
Leukodystrophy and Leukoencephalopathy Panel.

By Blueprint Genetics in Finland.

PSAP, HSPD1, FOXRED1, NFU1, TTC19, NUBPL, DARS2, GFM1, D2HGDH, AIFM1, ABCD1, ALDH3A2, COX15, SDHAF1, NDUFAF5, HIBCH, GALC, L2HGDH, COX6B1, CYP27A1 , (...)

View the complete list with 54 more genes
Specificity
2 %
Genes
100 %
Comprehensive Epilepsy Panel.

By Blueprint Genetics in Finland.

HTT, MTHFR, UBE3A, ARG1, BTD, ADSL, AMACR, CPT2, PSAP, GLB1, PRODH, GNE, HSD17B10, POLG, NDUFS4, HSPD1, AFG3L2, FOXRED1, FH, MECP2 , (...)

View the complete list with 263 more genes
Specificity
1 %
Genes
100 %
Alexander disease.

By Bioarray in Spain.

GFAP
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
ALEXANDER SYNDROME.

By Laboratorio de Genetica Clinica SL in Spain.

GFAP
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
Alexander disease.

By LifeLabs Genetics in Canada.

GFAP
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
Alexander Disease, Sequencing GFAP Gene.

By Reference Laboratory Genetics in Spain.

GFAP
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
Leukodystrophies , Panel Massive Sequencing (NGS) 57 genes.

By Reference Laboratory Genetics in Spain.

TYROBP, BEST1, HSD17B4, PSAP, HSPD1, DARS2, ABCD1, PHYH, SDHAF1, NDUFV1, GALC, CYP27A1, SDHA, ARSA, ASPA, EIF2B1, GJC2, PLP1, PEX2, PEX7 , (...)

View the complete list with 36 more genes
Specificity
2 %
Genes
100 %
Macrocephaly , Panel Massive Sequencing (NGS) 16 Genes.

By Reference Laboratory Genetics in Spain.

PTEN, ASPA, NSD1, GPC3, MLC1, PIGA, PIGN, GFAP, MED12, NFIX, EZH2, PIK3CA, DHCR24, PIK3R2, AKT3, HEPACAM
Specificity
7 %
Genes
100 %
Alexander's disease.

By Labor Dr. Wisplinghoff in Germany.

GFAP
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %
Alexander disease - GFAP gene sequencing.

By Foundation for Research In Genetics and Endocrinology and Institute of Human Genetics Institute of Human Genetics in India.

GFAP
Specificity
100 %
Genes
100 %


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